by: American Psychological Association, introduction by Christine Reilly | May 12, 2010
Despite scientific advances in understanding mental health problems, the stigma surrounding disorders such as depression, substance-use problems and disordered gambling behavior remains a powerful force in today’s society. Mental Health America is observing Mental Health Month in May to increase public awareness of mental health issues and reduce the stigma and prejudice toward these problems.
Clinicians and patients report that embarrassment and shame can be especially acute for individuals with gambling problems because of the lack of public awareness about how an activity like gambling can be as powerful as a drug for a vulnerable person.
To help us reflect on this important issue, we have reproduced, with permission from the American Psychological Association (APA), the following interview about mental health awareness and stigma with Katherine C. Nordal, Ph.D., executive director for professional practice at the APA.
Dr. Nordal is a licensed psychologist experienced in treating adults, children and adolescents and has clinical expertise in the treatment of stress-related disorders. As executive director for the APA’s Practice Directorate, Dr. Nordal manages a variety of activities involving legislative advocacy, legal initiatives, efforts to shape the evolving health care market, and a nationwide public education campaign, including the Mind/Body Health Campaign, to enhance the value of psychology.
Do you think there is still a stigma associated with mental illness?
Awareness of mental health issues has definitely improved in recent decades. When I entered practice more than 30 years ago, individuals in my semi-rural community would often travel 40-50 miles to get treatment because they did not want anyone to know that they were seeing a therapist. Many people were concerned about what others may think if they were open about their mental health. In many ways, we have taken great strides since then as more people talk about mental health publicly and as we see more positive depictions of mental health in popular culture. Yet, for many, stigma remains. A 2008 APA survey found that more than half of Americans saw stigma—and concerns about what other people might think—as barriers that could prevent them from seeking mental health treatment. And while an estimated 50 million Americans experience a mental health disorder in any year, only one in four will receive treatment.
It is important to remember the impact that stigma can have. Because of stigma, people who need treatment may fail to seek it and they may face discrimination and problems at work or school or even encounter harassment or violence. Furthermore, untreated mental health disorders cost businesses millions of dollars in lost productivity, absenteeism and health care costs.
Why does the public often have a different view of mental illness than physical illness?
Traditionally, the medical model has separated mental and physical health. But this fails to take account of the strong links between the mind and body. Research shows that physical health is directly connected to emotional health, and millions of Americans know that suffering from a mental health disorder can be as frightening and debilitating as any major physical health disorder. Poor mental health has implications for physical health – for example, research has shown that people with depression are at greater risk for developing heart disease, and conversely, that people with heart disease are more likely to suffer from depression than others.
Integrated health care – care that treats both the mind and body – is the key to breaking down stigma and providing the best care. Many psychologists already work in primary care settings with physicians and other health care professionals, often serving as members of multidisciplinary treatment teams and taking the lead when a patient has a primary mental health or substance abuse diagnosis.
What can be done to combat stigma and stereotypes about mental illness?
Congress took a huge step in tackling stigma when the Wellstone-Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act was passed last year. This new law means that insurance policies can no longer discriminate against those with mental health or substance use disorders. We’ve long known that mental health disorders can be as serious as those impacting physical health. The new parity law recognizes this by mandating that coverage must be the same for mental health as for physical health including co-payments, deductibles and in-patient treatment limits.
Events like Mental Health Month also serve to raise awareness and decrease stigma. Mental health disorders impact everyone – by talking about mental health we can dispel stereotypes and raise awareness.
The APA is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world’s largest association of psychologists.
Have you experienced or observed the stigma surrounding addiction, mood disorders or other mental health problems? Share your stories in the comments section below.